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Gertrude (Minerd) Ullery


Gertrude and Edward Ullery

Gertrude Sophia (Minerd) Ullery was born on Oct. 9, 1877 in Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA, the daughter of Calvin and Mary (Means) Minerd Sr. She and her brother Larmer were twins.

In 1897, at the age of about 19 or 20, Gertrude married Edward Jacob Ullery (Aug. 5, 1875-1960), the son of George W. and Mary "Jane" Ullery of Wooddale, Fayette County, PA. Their marital union endured for an extraordinary 63 years.

The couple produced a family of seven children -- Mary Garrison, Lloyd E. Ullery, Harry Ullery, Earl L. Ullery, Roy Ullery, Wilbert Minerd Ullery and one who died young.

At the birth of one son, reported the Connellsville Courier, Edward "is wearing a great big smile these days. The cause was the arrival of a little son…"


The Ullerys resided at Pennsville, near Connellsville, PA, where Edward was a laborer. In 1898, the Courier said he "has accepted a partnership with his father … in a dairy business." But a few years later, in October 1906, the Courier stated that he "has resumed blacksmithing again at the J.J. Richey shop." He remained a blacksmith for most if not all of his working life.

Above: Edward as a young man and with dog Corky. Below: Gertrude and Edward with granddaughters Bernetha and Wilma Jean, 1940s. Courtesy Bernetha Pritts

The family were longtime members of the Pennsville Evangelical United Brethren Church.

Edward and Gertrude's golden anniversary

The family were members of the Pennsville Evangelical United Brethren Church.

Gertrude and her mother and brothers must have been close, as the gossip columns of local newspapers of the time reported many weekend visits together. She also was close with her cousin, Tamzon (Inks) Grimm.

Gertrude is said to have been very neat and tidy, and to have been a fastidious housekeeper. When her farmer-brothers would come to visit, she would make an extra effort to clean up after they left.

In the summer of 1919, Gertrude held a party at her home in Pennsville. Said the Daily Courier, "Games and music were indulged in and lunch was served at a late hour." Attendees included Mrs. George Detwiler, Mr. and Mrs. Horner, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Brant, Mr. and Mrs. Grant Orbin and daughter Ethel, Mr. and Mrs. George Ullery, Mrs. Ruth Edwards, Mrs. Clark Edwards, Miss Lydia Keck, Mr. and Mrs. F.S. Roadway, Mrs. Eliza Miller, Mrs. O.P. Lenhart and daughter Frances, Miss Josephine Minerd, Miss Mary Minerd, Calvin Minerd and George Winebrenner. 


Gertrude's widowed mother deeded 1.5 acres of land to Gertrude and Edward in April 1928. Within a few weeks, they "flipped" the property and sold it to Charles Kurtz.

Mt. Olive Cemetery, Bullskin Twp.

In 1947, the Ullerys celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary. The couple enjoyed a family gathering at the home of their daughter, Mary Garrison, at Norvelt, Westmoreland County. They posed for photographs holding a five-layer cake decorated with white and yellow frosting. 

Sadly, Edward and Gertrude died just five days apart in the winter of 1960. He died first, on Feb. 7, 1960, from the effects of heart disease and hardening of the arteries followed by a heart attack.

Gertrude suffered from heart disease and hardening of the arteries. She contracted a respiratory infection and passed away at the age of 82 on Feb. 12, 1960. Her son Roy signed the death certificate. An obituary in the Connellsville Daily Courier noted that she was survived by 22 grandchildren and 43 great-grandchildren.

They sleep at each other's side at the Mt. Olive Cemetery in Bullskin.

Portraits of the couple have been found in the collections of Bernetha (Ullery) Christner Pritts and Debra (Minerd) Kemp.


~ Son Earl Lawrence Ullery Sr. ~

Son Earl Lawrence Ullery Sr. (1905-1968) was born on Jan. 29, 1905 in Pennsville, Fayette County, PA. 

He was married twice. His first bride, whom he wed on March 10, 1923 in Greensburg, was Edna "Pearl" Freed  (1904-1970), a native of Bullskin Township and the daughter of J. William and Martha (Miller) Freed.

Earl and Pearl together produced a brood of seven children -- Betty Jane Hancock, George Edward Ullery, Lois "Sleepy" Burke, Alberta Jean "Chicky" Darrell Albright, Lola "Annie" Heck, Earl Lawrence "Bing" Ullery Jr. and Harry William "Billy" Ullery. 

Earl "spent most of his life at Pennsville," said the Connellsville Daily Courier, and at one time was "employed as a millwright by the Ford Motor Co. at Cleveland, Ohio." He is known to have resided in McDonald, OH in 1950, with Pearl remaining in Pennsville/Bullskin Township. She sued for divorce in April 1950, as reported in the newspaper, with the matter approved in Fayette County Court in September 1950.

Swimming pool at Pennsville Park, a local landmark 

His second spouse was Lorraine Kennison ( ? - ? ). 

Earl fathered two children with Lorraine -- Jack R. Ullery and Linda Ullery. 

The family resided at Pennsville near Connellsville. They were members of the Pennsville United Methodist Church.

Burdened with uncontrolled diabetes, Earl was stricken by a heart attack and died at the age of 63 in Connellsville State General Hospital on May 14, 1968. His remains were lowered into repose in Mount Olive Cemetery. At the time of his death, he was survived by 29 grandchildren, said an obituary in the Connellsville Daily Courier

First wife Pearl maintained her dwelling-place at 126 Gibson Terrace, Connellsville. She held memberships in the Retired Peoples Fellowship and the Salvation Army. Sadly, she endured the deaths of three of her adult children in consecutive years. As her health failed in late March 1970, she was admitted to Connellsville State General Hospital. After a stay of two weeks, at the age of 66, she surrendered to death on April 8, 1970. The Daily Courier printed her obituary. Her daughter Betty Jane served as executrix of the estate.  

Daughter Betty Jane Ullery (1925-1987) was born in 1925 in Scottdale, PA. She married Charles Daniel Hancock ( ? -1993). Charles was a World War II veteran of the U.S. Navy. The pair migrated to Indianapolis. Five children of this family were Becky Harris, Barbara Jean Russell, Donna Price, Danny Allen Hancock and Bobbie Skaggs. Charles was employed by the Indianapolis Public Schools for 27 years. He retired in 1981. They belonged to the Clermont Nazarene Church and the Speedway Church of the Nazarene. The Hancocks are known to have returned to Connellsville for visits, as chronicled in the gossip columns of Betty Jane's hometown newspaper, the Connellsville Daily Courier. Sadly, Betty passed away at the age of 63 in Methodist Hospital on April 10, 1987. The Indianapolis Star published an obituary. Charles outlived his wife by almost six years. At the age of 70, he died on Feb. 12, 1993. His obituary appeared in the Indianapolis News, which said he was survived by 15 grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.

  • Granddaughter Becky Marie Hancock (1946-2017) was born on Oct. 24, 1946 in Indianapolis. On Nov. 13, 1965, when she was age 20, Becky married Ronald D. Harris (1944- ? ). Their union endured for a remarkable 51 years until the separation of death. Their two children were Rohn Harris and Melissa Carter. The family established their dwelling in Lebanon, IN. Becky earned a living through her work for the Indianapolis Public Works Department. She taught Sunday School and led a Girl Scouts troop, and belonged to the Moose Club and Nazarene Church. When time allowed, she liked to read, bowl and play bingo. The grim reaper of death cut her away at the age of 71, in Indianapolis' St. Vincent Hospital, on Nov. 10, 2017. Her remains were lowered under the sod of West Ridge Park Cemetery, Indianapolis. A portrait of the couple is etched in their dark grey grave marker.

    Grandson Rohn Harris ( ? - ? ) 

    Granddaughter Melissa Harris wed Rick Carter. 

  • Granddaughter Barbara Jean Hancock (1950-2018) was born on Oct. 24, 1950. She wed George W. Russell Jr. (April 15, 1949-2010). The pair remained in Indianapolis. Four sons produced by the couple were James Russell, Charles Russell, Jeffery Russell and Robert Russell. For 15 years, Barbara was employed as an administrative assistant by the City of Indianapolis, retiring in 2003. She held memberships in the Cloverdale Christian Church and the Cloverdale Huggy Bear Read Hat Association. George died on Oct. 3, 2010. Barbara surrendered to death at the age of 67 on New Year's Day 2018. Interment of the remains was at her husband's side in West Ridge Park Cemetery, and an obituary was printed in the Indianapolis Star.
  • Granddaughter Donna Hancock was joined in wedlock with Michael Price.
  • Grandson Danny Allen Hancock (1948-2005) was born four days before Christmas 1948 in Indianapolis. He dwelled for decades in his hometown. Danny was married to Barbara S. ( ? - ? ). They divorced in 1993. He is known to have been the father of a trio of daughters -- Michelle Hancock, Tammy Hancock and Lori Hancock. Death spirited him away in Indianapolis on Feb. 4, 2005. The Indianapolis Star printed an obituary, in which the family requested that any memorial donations be made to the American Lung Association. He sleeps for all time in West Ridge Park Cemetery, Indianapolis. 
  • Granddaughter Bobbie Hancock entered into marriage with (?) Skaggs. 

George Ullery's resting place
Son George Edward Ullery (1925-1969) was born on May 9, 1925 in Prittstown, Fayette County. During World War II, in 1943, when required to register for the military draft, he disclosed that he was employed on his father's farm at Everson, PA. He stood 5 feet, 7 inches tall, weighed 145 lbs., had brown hair and grey eyes, and bore a birthmark on the back of his head. On Aug. 21, 1948, he wed Bernadine Kennison ( ? - ? ), daughter of James R. and Sylvia May (Cooley) Kennison of Fairchance and Connellsville. Bernadine was a 1945 graduate of Connellsville High School. They resided in Connellsville along Narrows Road. One known daughter of the pair was Georgetta Jones. Bernardine filed for divorce in January 1954, citing "cruel and barbarous treatment and indignities," but they temporarily resolved their differences. George and Bernardine also relocated to Indianapolis and were there in 1961. Later in the decade, they divorced. George returned to Connellsville in his final years and lived in Bullskin Township, working as a bus driver. Suffering from heart valve disease and pulmonary congestion, he was admitted to Connellsville State General Hospital, where he succumbed to the spectre of death on Sept. 1, 1969. Interment was in the sacred soil of Green Ridge Memorial Park. His mother signed the official Pennsylvania certificate of death.

  • Granddaughter Georgetta Ullery ( ? - ? ) attended Indiana University. On Sept. 21, 1980, she is believed to have married Keith Allen Jones ( ? - ? ), a Purdue University student also of Indianapolis and the son of Wayne A. Jones. 

Lois and Donald Burke Courtesy Jayme Yerty
Daughter Lois June "Sleepy" Ullery (1927-1968) was born on June 9, 1927 in Connellsville. She was united in matrimony with Donald Lorin Burke (Dec. 16, 1931-1994), son of Winfred (Saylor) Houp and stepson of Sheldon Burke, and a native of Altoona, Blair County, PA. Together they became the parents of four daughters -- Donna June Dey Eyer Sliker, Janet Louise McCulley Sawyers, Sherrie Lee Burke and Tina Marie Yerty. Donald was a U.S. Army veteran of the Korean War. Circa 1967-1968, the Burkes dwelled in Donald's hometown of Altoona, at the address of 1413 16th Avenue. Donald was employed by Sky Brothers as a warehouse supervisor in a career that lasted there for 35 years. Lois June suffered from an acute lung disease known then as "Hamman-Rich Syndrome," or today as "acute interstitial pneumonia." She then went into heart failure which led to carbon dioxide narcosis, an excessive buildup in the bloodstream, developing into unconsciousness. The family was plunged into mourning when, in Altoona Hospital, she died at the age of 41 on Nov. 29, 1968. Her remains were lowered into eternal rest in Altoona's Grandview Cemetery. The widowed Donald survived for another 26 years. On June 27, 1970, in nuptials held at Bellwood, PA, he entered into marriage a second time with Joyce Marie Chapeloney (1946- ? ). They made their residence in Duncansville, PA at 2020 Country Road. Donald retired from Sky in April 1994. The angel of death swept him away on May 20, 1994. An obituary in the Altoona Mirror said that the headcount of his survivors was nine grandchildren. Rev. Paul Johnson led the funeral services.

  • Granddaughter Donna June Burke (1952-2019) was born in 1952 in Altoona. She thrice-wed. Her first spouse was (?) Dey ( ? - ? ). Children of this union were Paul Allen Dey, Brian E. Dey and Amy Jo Metz. Eventually the pair divorced. Then on Feb. 5, 1988, she and Terry Lee Eyer ( ? - ? ) were married in Winchester, VA. He was the son of Charles E. and Viola M. (Harn) Eyer and at the time of marriage resided at 1308 11th Street, Altoona. Martha F. Grim, appointed by the Circuit Court, officiated at the wedding. In 1994, Donna June made her home in Dysart, PA. She marrked a third time to (?) Sliker ( ? - ? ). At the age of 66, Donna June died in her residence in Roaring Spring, Blair County on July 11, 2019. An obituary was printed in the Altoona Mirror.

    Great-grandson Paul Allen Dey entered into marriage with Lisa. They moved to Bellwood, PA.

    Great-grandson Brian E. Dey has dwelled in Roaring Spring, PA.

    Great-granddaughter Amy Jo Dey wed Dennis Metz. They put down roots in Roaring Spring.

  • Granddaughter Janet Louise Burke (1954-2017) was born on July 5, 1954 in Mount Pleasant, PA. She first wed William McCaulley ( ? - ? ). Later, she was joined in marriage with Brian C. Sawyers ( ? - ? ). She lived at one time in Altoona and was the mother of Melissa "Missy" Conrad, Wendy Dunkel, April McCaulley, Elizabeth Sawyers and Brian Sawyers II. Janet and Brian dwelled in New Salem near Uniontown,, PA. Sadly, at the age of 62, she passed away in Uniontown Hospital on June 11, 2017.

    Great-granddaughter Melissa "Missy" Conrad ( ? - ? )

    Great-granddaughter Wendy Dunkel ( ? - ? )

    Great-granddaughter April McCaulley wed Brian McConnell, son of Ronald and Ann McConnell. Their three presumed children were Brian D. McConnell II, Kierstan McConnell and Nicholas McConnell. The family dwelled in the Altoona area. Their son Brian (Jan. 11, 1999-2018), who graduated from high school in Montana but resided in adulthood in Cresson, PA, died at the age of 19 at UPMC Altoona on March 19, 2018. 

    Great-granddaughter Elizabeth Sawyers ( ? - ? )

    Great-grandson Brian Sawyers II ( ? - ? )

  • Granddaughter Sherrie Lee Burke (1955?-2016) was born in about 1955 in Altoona. She settled in Duncansville, PA. She made a living as a food server at the Olive Garden restaurant chain. She is not known to have reproduced. In her adult years she had a fiancee Steven Snyder and a special friend, Virginia L. Snyder, who lived in Fishertown. As her health failed, Sherrie was admitted to reside in the Ridge View Elder Care Rehabilitation Center in Curwensville, Clearfield County, PA. Death swept her away there at the age of 60 on Feb. 6, 2016. The Altoona Mirror printed an obituary. Funeral services and burial were private.
  • Granddaughter Tina Marie Burke ( ? - ? ) was born on (?) and was 12 years old when her mother died. Tina was united in matrimony on April 28, 1984 with Jay Todd Yerty (Sept. 28, 1961-2000). They are believed to have been the parents of Dawn Delgrosso, Katrina Yerty and Jayme Yerty. Circa 1994, they dwelled in Martinsburg, PA. Tragedy cleaved the family apart on the fateful day of March 19, 2000. While Jay and Tina were driving northbound on Route 866, two miles south of Williamsburg, PA, an oncoming vehicle cross the centerline and struck theirs' head-on. The couple was rushed to Bon Secours Holy Family Hospital in Altoona, where Jay at age 37 was pronounced dead on arrival and Tina treated for her injuries. The incident was reported in the Tyrone Daily Herald. Tina has not remarried. On June 29, 2011, her longtime companion Dennis M. "Doc" Rafferty died following a long illness. Tina's daughter Jayme Yerty graciously has provided content for this biography.

Daughter Alberta Jean "Chicky" Ullery (1929-1997) was born on July 28, 1929, and was married twice. Her first husband was Charles Richard "Chuck" Darrell (1929-1958), the son of John Henry and Lucartha (Bell) Darrell. They were married on July 24, 1949, following his discharge from the U.S. Air Force, where he had served in Japan from 1946 to 1949. They bore seven children -- John Charles Darrell, Richard Lee Darrell, Mark Allen Darrell, Jeffrey Earl Darrell, Mary Ellen Darrell and Beverly Jean Darrell. In October 1957, Chuck obtained employment with the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission at its Harrison City Division. Heartache rocked the family when Chuck died "of injuries received when he was struck by a truck while working as a flagman on the Pennsylvania Turnpike" on May 27, 1958, reported the Daily Courier. "The accident occurred ... four miles east of the Allegheny Interchange. Internal injuries, skull fracture and shock were listed as causing his death." His remains were laid to rest at Sylvan Heights Cemetery in Uniontown, Fayette County. Pregnant at the time of the tragedy, Alberta later gave birth to the couple's youngest child, Beverly Jean Darrell. A little more than two years after Chuck's death, Alberta married again to Donald "Jack" Albright ( ? - ? ) on Nov. 10, 1960. They went on to have three children of their own. She passed away at the age of 68, in Connellsville, on Feb. 23, 1998.

  • Grandson John Charles Darrell ( ? - ? )
  • Grandson Richard Lee Darrell ( ? - ? )
  • Grandson Mark Allen Darrell ( ? - ? )
  • Grandson Jeffrey Earl Darrell ( ? - ? )
  • Granddaughter Mary Ellen Darrell ( ? - ? )
  • Granddaughter Beverly Jean Darrell ( ? - ? )

Daughter Lola May "Annie" Ullery (1932-2018) was born on Sept. 6, 1932 in Connellsville. Circa 1952, she was joined in wedlock with Donald "Moe" Heck Jr. ( ? - ? ). News of their marriage license was printed in the Connellsville Daily Courier. They settled in Connellsville and were the parents of Pamela Hoke, Donald Edward Heck and Paula Mardis. In later years, the pair retired and moved to Florida, settling in West Palm Beach. Lola died at the age of 86 on Oct. 31, 2018. Her remains were shipped from Florida to Connellsville for interment in Mt. Olive Cemetery. In a Daily Courier obituary, the family asked that any memorial donations be made to the American Heart Association or the Alzheimeer's Foundation.

  • Granddaughter Pamela Heck was united in wedlock with Ronald Hoke, son of Clinton Hoke. One known son of this couple was Brian Keith Hoke. On son's Brian's first birthday, he was pictured in the Connellsville Daily Courier. They relocated from Mount Pleasant, PA to North Dakota.
  • Granddaughter Donald Edward Heck entered into marriage with Bonnie. They stayed put in Connellsville.
  • Granddaughter Paula Heck was joined in matrimony with Randy Mardis. The pair established a home in West Palm Beach, FL. 

Son Earl Lawrence "Bing" Ullery Jr. (1935-1996) was born in 1935. He married Velma Austin ( ? - ? ), daughter of Berthyl Bryan "Bert" and Edna (Minor) Austin. Together they produced at least six children -- Larry Ullery, Diann Ullery, Phyllis Ullery, Joseph Ullery,  Suzanne Ullery and (?) Ullery. The family dwelled in a rented house in Jefferson County, IL in 1964, about two miles north of the Field consolidated school near Velma's parents. Sadly, they lost most of their possessions in a housefire the day after Christmas 1964. The Mt. Vernon (IL) Register-News asked readers, "Will you extend a helping hand this holiday season to a Jefferson county couple and their five little children who need assistance because their home burned down?" They established residences in Texico, IL in 1966-1967, Mount Vernon, IL in 1968 and in Opdyke, IL in 1970. The angel of death claimed him at the age of 60, in Danville, IL, on Jan. 4, 1996. Rev. John Ashby and Rev. Russell Moore co-officiated the funeral service, held in the Panther Fork Baptist church, with an obituary appearing in the Carbondale (IL) Southern Illinoisan. The remains were interred in Panther Fork Cemetery. 

  • Grandson Larry Ullery ( ? - ? )
  • Granddaughter Diann Ullery ( ? - ? )
  • Granddaughter Phyllis Ullery ( ? - ? )
  • Grandson Joseph Berthyl Ullery (1962- ? ) was born in 1962 in Goos Samaritan Hospital.
  • Granddaughter Suzanne Ullery ( ? - ? )
  • Grandson (?) Ullery ( ? - ? ) was born in 1969 in Good Samaritan Hospital, weighing 8 lbs, 6 oz.

Son Harry William "Billy" Ullery (1937-1967) was born in 1937 or 1942. He wed Patricia Moran ( ? - ? ). They were the parents of two -- William Anthony Ullery and Lori Ann Ullery. He joined the U.S. Marine Corps in 1959 and trained at Camp Pendleton, CA. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, and in 1960 began a 14-month tour in Okinawa aboard the USS Mitchell transport vessel. Then in 1963, now with the 1st Bridge Company, 7th Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division, he specialized in bridge-building. Later, he was employed as a truck driver for Felix Frassatoo of Mount Vernon, IL and relocated to Dix, IL. Tragically, he was murdered in Gary, IN in July 1967, the victim of a robbery. Reported the Daily Courier: "He had delivered a load in Gary, and was to pick up a truck load of steel. Police said that he had been robbed, and all identification was taken from him except for his shirt, lettered with the trucking company's name. The company was notified and identified him." The senseless act made his wife Patricia a young widow with a three-week-old daughter Lori Ann. The remains were returned to Connellsville, with Rev. Melvin Chambliss earlier leading funeral services in Indiana.

  • Granddaughter Lori Ann Ullery (1967- ? ) was born in 1967. She was only three weeks old at her father's tragic death. 

Son Jack R. Ullery ( ? - ? ) lived at home with his parents in Pennsville in 1968. 

Daughter Linda Ullery ( ? - ? ) resided with her parents in Pennsville in 1968.  


Wilbert Minerd Ullery, with his wife Mildred

~ Son Wilbert Minerd Ullery ~


Son Wilbert Minerd Ullery (1909-1931) was born in 1909.

He was united in matrimony with Mildred Meader (1910-1993), the daughter of Albert P. and Olive (Lauffer) Meader. 

Wilbert in adulthood stood 5 feet, 7 inches tall, and weighed 146 lbs., with brown eyes and brown hair. He was employed at the American Sheet and Tin Plate Company, also known as Marion Machine, located under the Scottdale-Everson Bridge. 

Heartache rocked the family around Thanksgiving 1931 when Wilbert, a 21-year-old new father, with his wife expecting again, became deathly ill after drinking unpasteurized milk from the Minerd farm. Three weeks later on Dec. 18, 1931, after fighting desperately for his life, he passed away at Memorial Hospital in Scottdale.

The unexpected death left his wife alone to birth their second daughter six months later, and to raise the two girls -- Bernetha Christner Pritts and Wilma "Jean" Myers.

Mildred later married again to Hugus R. "Hugh" Echard (1914-2001), son of George S. and Augusta (Korn) Echard. 


They produced two children of their own -- Maureen Gower and Sherwood P. Echard -- and enjoyed 57 years of marriage.


L-R: Mildred with her firstborn; Wilbert and brother-in-law John Meader with baby Bernetha; and sisters Wilma Jean and Bernetha. Courtesy Bernetha Pritts


Connellsville Daily Courier

The federal census enumeration of 1940 shows Mildred and Hugh with her two daughters living in East Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, with Hugh employed as a laborer with the Works Progress Administration. The WPA was one of the ways President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the federal government tried to overcome widespread unemployment during the Great Depression era. The initiative is widely considered one of the Roosevelt's largest and most ambitious undertakings of his "New Deal" to get the nation back on sound economic footing. Over the years, the WPA hired millions of out-of-work individuals to build public works projects, such as roads, bridges, retaining walls and buildings.

Mildred was an "employee of the Scottdale Review and also worked at the Wolfe Nursing Home in East Huntington," said the Greensburg Tribune Review.

Hugh also earned income over the years as a coal miner and laborer for Garlick Construction Company. At one point he was a custodian for the Mount Pleasant Armory. They belonged to the Scottdale Church of Christ.

She passed away at the age of 82 on Feb. 23, 1993. She was laid to rest in the Green Ridge Memorial Park.

Hugh lived for another eight years. He died at the age of 87 on Feb. 19, 2001.

Bernetha Christner Pritts
Daughter Bernetha Ullery (1930- ? ) was born in about 1930. Circa 1948, in Scottdale, she was united in matrimony with Ralph H. Christner (July 7, 1922-2003), son of Harry C. and Mary Ann (Nedrow) Christner of the family of Levi and Catherine (Younkin) Christner. A shower was held in their honor at the Hawkeye Grange Hall. The couple are believed to have produced these known children -- Alvin "Barry" Christner and Dr. Brent Christner. During World War II, Ralph served in the U.S. Army as a member of the 144th Ordnance Company and saw action in the invasion of Normandy. After the war, he founded Ralph H. Christner Construction Company. Said the Greensburg Tribune-Review, Ralph "was a gilder and fixed-wing pilot, a scuba diver and enjoyed classical music and world-wide travel and photography. He developed his own film, color and black and white. He was a cameraman for Channel 11 News. He was a member of the Tri-County Camera Club. Ralph traveled and lived in Canada where he sold coal dryers. He also managed an estate and country club." The couple eventually divorced. She entered into marriage a second time to William L. Pritts ( ? -1986), a native of Somerset, Somerset County and the son of W.L. and Mary (Leichty) Pritts. He was divorced from his first wife and brought three offspring to the second union, Richard Willis Pritts, Robert Paul Pritts and Judith Ann Fink. The Prittses bore one son of their own, William Pritts. Noted the Latrobe Bulletin, William was an inventor who "held the patent for the Pritts rotary kiln coal dryer. He was the owner of the former Pritts Construction Co. Inc. He was a former member of the Boy Scout Council 372, Ligonier, and was a former lay preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church." Sadness cascaded over the family when William died in Westmoreland Hospital in Aug. 1986. Burial was in Mehoner Memorial Cemetery. Bernetha outlived William by many decades. She has been a private-duty health care provider, caring for infirm clients in their homes. One particularly beloved client was Pam (Lambert) Doak of Ligonier, PA, mother of Pulitzer Prize-winning author Annie Dillard, of the Capt. William Meyers and Mary E. (Foy) Schrock family of Somerset County, PA. In fact, the Doak family acknowledged her in a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette obituary. Circa 1988, she served as president of Laurel Mountain Quilters. Bernetha attended our national reunions during the early 2000s. At the 2005 gathering, she displayed several quilts she had created. Click here and here to see her quilts in our Online Quilt Museum. She has been a member of the Ligonier Heritage United Methodist Church. Former husband Ralph married a second time to Shirley J. Matheson. He died as a resident of Noble's Personal Care Home in Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, PA at the age of 80 on June 2, 2003, with burial in Greenlick Cemetery near Mount Pleasant.

  • Grandson Alvin "Barry" Christner (1949-2019) was born on Feb. 4, 1949 in Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County. He was joined in the bonds of wedlock with Beverly Hutchinson ( ? - ? ). She brought a son to the marriage, Brian. He was the father of three offspring -- Pamela A. Christner, George P. Christner and Jeffrey M. Christner. They dwelled in Ligonier, Westmoreland County. Barry earned a living for many years as a carpenter. He also was a member of the Army National Guard and belonged to the Red Barn Sportsmen's Club. In his spare time he liked to fly fish, trap shoot and ride his motorcycle. The family grieved when, at the age of 70, Barry succumbed to death at home on Sept. 14, 2019. An obituary in the Greensburg Tribune Review noted that his survivors included five grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Funeral services were preached by Rev. Dr. J. Paul McCracken, with interment of the remains in Mehoher Memorial Park.
  • Grandson Dr. Brent Christner ( ? -living) was born in (?). He wedded Renee ( ? - ? ). Brent earned a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University. The couple relocated to Montana, where he was a professor with Montana State University in Bozeman -- and thence to Louisiana, where he worked for Louisiana State University as a professor of biological sciences. Later, they moved to Gainesville, FL, where he was employed with the University of Florida researching and studying microbial ecolology. Included in his fields of expertise are microbial physiology, environmental microbiology, biogeochemistry, polar microbiology and bioprecipitation. Among his projects has been searching for life signs amid sediment found in deep levels of Antarctic ice, as well as plant bacteria found in samples of snow. He was interviewed by National Public Radio in February 2008 and appeared on an episode of Science Club/Mindbending in July 2013.
  • Granddaughter Kendra Pritts married Thomas W. Ayersman and lived in Eastville, VA in 1986. She has taught in the Accomack Public Schools, and in her free time has been a dog breeder. Later, she wedded Brent Powell. Circa 2019, they were in Wachapreague, VA.
  • Granddaughter Elise wedded (?) Ryan. She relocated to Canada.
  • Grandson William Douglas Pritts ( ? - ? ) was born in (?). As a young man, he received a degree from the University of Pittsburgh and worked for Latrobe Construction Company. He has been married twice. On Aug. 30, 1997, he was joined in the bonds of marriage with Shiryl Beth Henry ( ? - ? ), daughter of Raymond and Maxine Henry of Rockwood. The ceremony was held at Heritage United Methodist Church in Ligonier, officiated by Rev. Donald Cook. At the time of marriage, Shiryl was a substitute teacher in Somerset and Westmoreland Counties, having earned her degree from Frostburg State University. The couple was pictured an a wedding story in the Somerset Daily American. Later, he was united in holy matrimony with Lindsey. They have dwelled in Ligonier.
  • Step-grandson Richard Willis Pritts was in Greensburg in 1986. He married Rosemarie and moved to Kaneohe, HI.
  • Step-grandson Robert Paul Pritts made a home in Donegal, Westmoreland County in 1986-2006. He wedded Evelyn.
  • Step-granddaughter Judith Ann Pritts wedded Joseph W. Fink and moved to the Murrysville section of Pittsburgh.

Daughter Wilma "Jean" Ullery (1932-2023 ? ) was born in mid-1932, after the death of her father. She was a young girl with Hugh Echard became her step-father. She was joined in the bonds of wedlock with Raymond Charles Myers (Aug. 19, 1925-2002), a native of Everson, PA and the son of Oren A. and Madeline (Kuhns) Myers. The family made their longtime home in Scottdale and were members of St. Paul's Lutheran Church. Four children produced by this marriage were Leslie "Buzz" Myers, Gary Myers, Beverly Guengerich and Joyce Lochinger. Raymond was a graduate of Scottdale High School and a U.S. Army veteran of World War II. He was wounded during the war and received the Purple Heart medal. He was employed by Scottdale Machine Foundry and Construction Company and retired as plant manager. In his free time he liked to garden, hunt and work with wood. Sadly, at the age of 77, Raymond died on Dec. 28, 2002 in Greensburg's Westmoreland Regional Hospital. Rev. Andrew F. Dougherty III officiated the funeral service, followed by burial in Green Ridge Memorial Park. 

Raymond Meyers received a Purple Heart
Daughter Wilma "Jean" Ullery (1932- ? ) was born in mid-1932, after the death of her father. She was a young girl with Hugh Echard became her step-father. She was joined in the bonds of wedlock with Raymond Charles Myers (Aug. 19, 1925-2002), a native of Everson, PA and the son of Oren A. and Madeline (Kuhns) Myers. The family made their longtime home in Scottdale and were members of St. Paul's Lutheran Church. Four children produced by this marriage were Leslie "Buzz" Myers, Gary Myers, Beverly Guengerich and Joyce Lochinger. Raymond was a graduate of Scottdale High School and a U.S. Army veteran of World War II. He was wounded during the war and received the Purple Heart medal. He was employed by Scottdale Machine Foundry and Construction Company and retired as plant manager. In his free time he liked to garden, hunt and work with wood. Sadly, at the age of 77, Raymond died on Dec. 28, 2002 in Greensburg's Westmoreland Regional Hospital. Rev. Andrew F. Dougherty III officiated the funeral service, followed by burial in Green Ridge Memorial Park. 

  • Grandson Leslie "Buzz" Myers was joined in wedlock with Wendy. They made a home in Scottdale in 2002. Buzz has served as fire chief in Scottdale. He was quoted in a most unfortunate story in 2009 about one of his colleagues who lost an elderly father in a housefire -- Buzz's distant cousin James R. Marth Sr. of the family of Joseph Cyrus and Margaret (Thurston) Cramer. He also has been featured in news stories about the need to recuit new volunteer firefighters. He received the department's Lifetime Achievement Award in 2009.
  • Grandson Gary Myers was united in matrimony with Rebecca "Becky." They have lived in Scottdale.
  • Granddaughter Beverly Myers married Galen Guengerich, son of Glen and Allie (Davison) Guengerich. The pair established a home in Schwenksville, Montgomery County, PA. 
  • Granddaughter Joyce Myers wed Shawn Lochinger. They put down roots in Palmyra, PA. Shawn serves as associate pastor of Gravel Hill United Methodist Church,, while Joyce is worship leader of the congregation. Shawn also is an attorney with the law firm Sweet, Stevens, Katz & Williams LLP, focusing his practice on special education law and labor and employment law as it relates to schools. According to his firm's website, he has "served as a hearing officer for gifted education as well as expulsion hearings and in student discipline cases, and has represented clients at the administrative level and in federal court, before the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission, the EEOC, the OFCCP, and unemployment compensation referees." Shawn holds his law degree from Duke University and his bachelor's degree from Washington and Jefferson College, and is a member of the Pennsylvania School Boards Association.

Bird's-eye view of industrial Scottdale


~ Son Lloyd E. Ullery ~


Lloyd Ullery

Son Lloyd E. Ullery (1901-1962) was born on Nov. 2, 1901.

He was joined the bonds of wedlock with Elsie Exline (1902-1986).

The Ullerys resided in Wooddale, Fayette County and bore three offspring-- twins Anna Mae Wiltrout and Evelyn Ullery and Edgar Ullery.

Lloyd was a draftsman at the Scottdale Works of the American Sheet and Tin Plate Company, and later "was a structural iron engineer for the National Machine Co. and the Pittsburgh Steel Co., and a member of the Pennsville E.U.B. Church," said the Daily Courier

He contracted a case of polio, also diagnosed circa 1947 as multiple sclerosis. Rendered unable to walk, but to continue his skill at making prints and drawings, he was transported to work by wheelchair. 

Tragically, daughter Evelyn was struck and killed by a moving automobile near Pennsville in May 1930. By 1950, apparently unable to work, Lloyd had no occupation while Elsie earned income ironing clothes at a laundry.

Lloyd died at home at 312 West Peach Street in Connellsville at the age of 60 on March 30, 1962. His remains were laid to rest in Mt. Olive Cemetery.

Elsie outlived her spouse by a number of years. Circa 1972, she was in the Hardy Hill section of Dunbar, Fayette County, and endured the death of her married daughter Anna Mae Wiltrout.

Death swept Elsie away in 1986. 

Daughter Anna Mae Ullery (1923-1972) was born on Dec. 9, 1923 at Everson, Fayette County. She was united in the bonds of holy matrimony with Harold Ray Wiltrout (March 16, 1922-1950), a son of Edward George and Mae C. (Bowser) Wiltrout of South Connellsville. They were the parents of Ronald Ray Wiltrout Sr., Gerald Eugene Wiltrout and Phyllis Jean Stafford. The couple resided at 416 Johnston Avenue in Connellsville, with Ray working as a mechanic in the transportation field. The family was plunged into grief when the 28-year-old Ray was stricken with a ruptured appendix. He suffered for several weeks and then was admitted to Connellsville State General Hospital. Peritnoitis set in, and no cure was to be found. The Angel of Death carried him away after three weeks of suffering on Dec. 30, 1950. Interment of the remains was in Dickerson Run Union Cemetery, with Rev. Harry O. Kline, of the First Baptist Church, preaching the funeral sermon. The widowed Anna Mae lived for another 22 years and later relocated to nearby Dunbar, making a home in the Hardy Hill section. Sadly, she passed away at the age of 48 on Nov. 21, 1972. An obituary was printed in the Connellsville Daily Courier. She sleeps in eternal repose next to her spouse in Dickerson Run.

  • Grandson Ronald Ray Wiltrout Sr. (1944-2020) was born on April 25, 1944 in Connellsville, Fayette County. He served in the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War. Ronald wedded Georgia Watson ( ? - ? ). The couple produced four sons -- Ronald Ray Wiltrout Jr., Kevin Claycomb, Brandon Wiltrout and Robert "Rob" Wiltrout. Ronald learned the welding trade and worked in this occupation for Shane Felter Industries, a position from which he eventually retired. He liked to fish, ride his Harley Davidson motorcycle and watch war memovies on television. The Wiltrouts made their home in Connellsville and later in Dickerson Run. They mourned at the death of their two-day-old grandson Trevor Chase Wiltrout on May 30, 1998. After a divorce, Ronald married again to Deborah "Debbie" May ( ? -living), while George was joined in marriage with (?) Brown. Sadly, at the age of 76, Ronald died at home on June 10, 2020. Pastor Lee Maley, a distant cousin of the Martha (Mayle) Mayle family, officiated at the funeral service, with military rites provided by the Connellsville Veterans Commission.

Great-grandson Ronald Ray Wiltrout Jr. married Marci. They dwell in Connellsville.

Great-grandson Brandon Wiltrout wedded Kira. Their home is in Brownsville, Fayette County.

Great-grandson Kevin Claycomb was united in wedlock with Karen. They have lived in Dickerson Run.

Great-grandson Robert B. "Rob" Wiltrout (1972-2021) was born on April 19, 1972 in Connellsville. He resided in Scottdale in adulthood. Robert was the father of three daughters -- Taylor Wiltrout, Kaitlen Wiltrout and Brianna Wiltrout. He loved to hike and kayak with a special fondness for animals. Sadly, at the age of 49, he passed away at home on Dec. 14, 2021. The funeral service was led by Pastor Lee Maley, a distant cousin of the Martha (Mayle) Mayle. An obituary appeared in the Connellsville Daily Courier.

  • Grandson Gerald Eugene "Jerry" Wiltrout (1946-2017) was born on Jan. 7, 1946. He married Margaret Marie Cope ( ? - ? ), daughter of Arthur Cope. The Wiltrouts dwelled in Dunbar and were the parents of Glenda Wiltrout, Gerald "Skeeter" Wiltrout, Kirstie Wiltrout and Arthur Ray Wiltrout. As with his brother Ronald, Gerald was trained as a welder and worked for Babcock & Wilcox in Monongahela, PA. He belonged to the National Rifle Association, Long Rifle Buck Skinners and Boilermakers Union Local 154. In his free time, said the Connellsville Daily Courier, he "was a gunsmith, woodworker, primitive weapon specialist, knife maker, blacksmith, flint knapper and scrimshawer, and he made miniature houses and trains." Sadness cascaded over the family at the passing of their son Arthur Ray at birth on April 30, 1965 and grandchildren Levi Alexander Provance and Elizabeth Wiltrout. Gerald was cut away by the Grim Reaper at home at the age of 71 on Aug. 4, 2017. Rev. Lee Maley, a distant cousin of the Martha (Mayle) Mayle family, preached the funeral sermon, with interment in Mt. Auburn Cemetery.

Great-granddaughter Glenda Wiltrout married or was a companion of Douglas Provance, son of Dorene Provance. They produced a son, Levi Alexander Provance. Glenda lived in Dunbar in 2006-2007. She grieved at the death of her son Levi, an employee of International Liner of Mount Braddock, at the age of 20 on New Year's Day 2007. Burial of his remains was in Mount Auburn Cemetery, with the funeral presided over by Rev. Dr. Bryon Tate Fulton. Levi's obituary was printed in the Connellsville Daily Courier.

Great-grandson Gerald "Skeeter" Wiltrout

Great-granddaughter Kirstie Wiltrout

  • Granddaughter Phyllis Jean Wiltrout (1947-2008) was born on June 19, 1947 in Connellsville. She was united in the bonds of wedlock with Harry "Jim" Stafford ( ? - ? ). The Stafford resided in Dunbar and bore these children -- Barbara Brooks, Linda Miller, Tina Wiltrout, Scott Wiltrout, Bonnie Wingrove, William Ray Stafford and Kimberly Murphy. They endured the heartbreak of the untimely death of their son William Ray. Sadly, at the age of 61, Phyllis died on Aug. 14, 2008 as a patient in Excela Health Frick Hospital in Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County. Her survivors included 19 grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren. Officiating at the funeral was Rev. Lee Maley, a distant cousin of the Martha (Mayle) Mayle family.

Great-granddaughter Barbara Brooks lives in Little Summit near Dunbar.

Great-granddaughter Linda Stafford married James Miller and dwells in Connellsville.

Great-granddaughter Tina Wiltrout resides in Dunbar.

Great-grandson Scott Wiltrout has made a home in Dunbar.

Great-granddaughter Bonnie Stafford wedded Shaun Wingrove. They live in Dunbar.

Great-granddaughter Kimberly Stafford was joined in wedlock with Cliff Murphy. The couple has put down roots in Dawson, Fayette County.

Son Edgar Exline Ullery (1925-1984) was born on Dec. 13, 1925 in Pennsville. He married a distant cousin, Donna Jean Miner (1935-2018), daughter of Albert Clyde and Myrtle (McCarthy Martin) Miner of the family of Grant Ulysses Miner. See the Miner biography for more.


~ Daughter Mary (Ullery) Garrison ~


Mary and George Garrison

Daughter Mary Ullery (1900-1990) was born in about 1900.

In about 1920, she married George W. Garrison Sr. (1898-1978), a Virginia native. 

They bore two known children -- Gladys Thompson and George Garrison Jr. 

The Garrisons made their home in Southwest Greensburg in 1930. George's occupation at the time was as a sheet metal laborer.

By 1940, they relocated to the Westmoreland Homesteads, a town known as Norvelt in honor of the town's political sponsor, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The town was created and financed by the federal government, during the Depression, a pioneering effort to provide private home ownership for unemployed families. They dwelled there in house A-50½, with George employed as a government project carpenter.

George later found work as a yardman in a lumber yard, as shown in the 1950 federal census enumeration. 

Mary was known for her talents in sewing, and in August 1968 received several prizes at the Westmoreland County Fair at Mutual. The awards were bestowed for her pillow slips, one-inch edging and solid centerpiece tatting. Their home in the 1970s was on the outskirts of Mount Pleasant.

Sadly, George passed away in 1978. Burial was in Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

Mary outlived her husband by a dozen years. She surrendered to the angel of death in 1990.


Elliott Company in Jeannette, George Garrison Jr.'s employer


Son George W. Garrison Jr. (1928-1994) was born in 1928. He married Betty Marie Akins (May 1, 1931-2015), daughter of Lawrence and Laura (Garris) Akins. The Garrisons produced two children -- Deborah L. Gorton and Gregory A. Garrison. George was a longtime "employee of the Elliott Co., where he was a machinist and instructor at the Elliott Training Center," said the Greensburg Tribune-Review. He received a 20-year service award at Elliott in March 1969 as a member of the rotor department. Betty was employed for many years by Old Republic Insurance Company. The family resided in Norvelt and belonged to St. Paul Reformed United Church of Christ in Trauger. Sadly, George died at the age of 66 on Nov. 12, 1994, with burial in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery. As a widow, Betty relocated to Brookville, Jefferson County, PA, where her married daughter was living. As she aged and her health failed, Betty was admitted to Clarion Hospital. There, at the age of 83, she succumbed to the Grim Reaper of Death on Jan. 31, 2015. Her survivors included four grandsons and five great-grandchildren. Her remains were returned to Westmoreland County to rest for all time in Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

  • Granddaughter Deborah L. Garrison married John Gorton. They established a residence in Brookville, Jefferson County, PA. Their children were John Michael Gorton and Keith Gorton.

    Great-grandson John Michael Gorton entered into marriage with Becky. They haved dwelled in Armbrust and Hunker, PA.

    Great-grandson Keith Gorton wed Melissa. They too have made a home in Norvelt.

  • Grandson Gregory A. Garrison  was in Norvelt in  2015. He is the father of Gary Garrison and Scott Garrison.

    Great-grandson Gary Garrison has resided in Connellsville.

    Great-grandson Scott Garrison was in Latrobe circa 2015.

Daughter Gladys Garrison (1924- ? ) was born in about 1924. In about 1945, she married Robert E. Thompson Jr. (Aug. 28, 1918-2006), son of Robert E. and Josephine (Warheit) Thompson Sr. of Armbrust, Westmoreland County. Their marital union endured for 61 years. The couple's two daughters were Linda Kowalewski and Patricia Hassler. During World War II, Robert served in the U.S. Army. The family lived in Norvelt, where Robert was plant manager for Amco Clothing Factory. They were members of Maplewood Presbyterian Church, with Robert holding the positions of deacon and elder. He also belonged to the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post of Mount Pleasant. At the age of 88, Robert died at home on Dec. 23, 2006. Rev. Stephen M. LaSor led the funeral service, with interment of the remains in Mount Pleasant Cemetery. Military rites were furnished by the Armbrust Veterans and the AmVets post of United. The Greensburg Tribune-Review printed an obituary.

  • Granddaughter Linda Thompson married Stanley Kowalewski ( ? -1999). Sadly, Stanley died in about 1999. Circa 2006, Linda made her home in Norvelt.
  • Granddaughter Patricia Thompson wedded (?) Hassler. She relocated to Camp Hill, PA, where she was in 2006.



~ Son Harry J. Ullery ~

Son Harry J. Ullery (1903-1962) was born on Feb. 15, 1903 in Pennsville, Fayette County.

Wheh he was 19 years of age, Harry married 16-year-old Florence Butler (1910- ? ).

The couple together produced three children -- Ronald Edgar Ullery, Robert W. Ullery and Lena "Jean" Rutherford Whitt. 

As a young family, the Ullerys in 1930 made a home in Lawrence Township, Clearfield County, PA, with Harry earning a living as a coal miner. During the first half of the 1930s, they returned to Fayette County, with him continuing to work in coal mining. They lived along the Scottdale Star Route in Bullskin Township.

Harry Ullery's employer, Duraloy in Scottdale. Library of Congress 

Said the Connellsville Daily Courier, Harry "was a coal miner, and also had been employed by the Duraloy Co. at Scottdale." He held a social membership in the Veterans of Foreign Wars post of Scottdale.

Harry was stricken with a massive heart attack and died immediately at the age of 59 on May 1, 1962. Burial was in the Mount Olive Cemetery, with Rev. R.A. Nelson officiating at the funeral service. An obituary was printed in the Daily Courier.

Son Ronald Edgar Ullery (1923-1989) was born on April 7, 1923 in Scottdale. In 1957, he entered into marriage with Erma L. Ogden (Aug. 7, 1932-1999). They became the parents of an only child, Kathy I. Caldwell. The family resided in Curwensville, Clearfield County, PA. Ronald spent 20 years as a sawyer with Bash Lumber Company and then a year with Green Mountain Right of Way in Punxsutawney. Sadly, at the age of 66, Ronald passed away at home on Oct. 27, 1989. An obituary was printed in the Indiana Gazette in which the family asked that any memorial donations be made to the American Cancer Society. Co-officiating the funeral service were Rev. Daryl Jeffers and Rev. James Cooper, followed by interment in Oak Hill Cemetery, Curwensville. Erma survived for another decade. She succumbed to the spectre of death in Ebensburg, PA at the age of 66 on Feb. 18, 1999.

  • Granddaughter Kathy I. Ullery wed (?) Caldwell. Her home in 1989 was in White Marsh, VA. 

Son Robert W. Ullery (1926- ? ) was born in about 1926. He  established his residence in the 1940s in Curwensville, Clearfield County, PA. Then by 1989, he had moved back to Scottdale. Nothing more about him is known. 

Daughter Lena "Jean" Ullery (1927- ? ) was born in about 1927. She was married twice. She first wed (?) Rutherford. Her home in 1962 was in West Newton, Westmoreland County. By 1976, she was joined in matrimony with (?) Whitt and remained in West Newton as of 1989.


~ Son Roy Ullery ~

Son Roy Ullery (1907-1978) was born on April 30, 1907 in Bullskin Township.

Evidence suggests that circa 1927, at the age of 20, he married Mary M. Huffman (1912-1990) of Mount Pleasant. News of their marriage license was printed in the Connellsville Daily Courier.

Whether or not they reproduced is not yet known. 

Mary is known for having captured a red ribbon for her crocheted afghan at the Westmoreland County Fair in 1967. 

Roy passed into eternity in 1978, with burial in Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

Mary outlived her husband by a dozen years. She died in 1990.

Copyright © 2001-2003, 2009, 2011, 2020, 2023 Mark A. Miner 

Jayme Yerty and Bernetha (Ullery) Christner Pritts graciously have shared valuable content for this biography.